Cargo to Greenland - Data to the World

The Nuka Arctica Measurement Program

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Nuka Arctica supplies Greenland with all types of required goods. While transiting the North Atlantic and along the West Greenland coast valuable scientific data are collected, furthering our knowledge on the role of these ocean regions for overturning, heat-transport and carbon uptake. The measurement program on Nuka Arctica was instigated in the early 2000s and now includes underway temperature, salinity, ocean currents (ADCP) and air and sea surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). In addition ocean structure is regularly surveyed by dropping temperature probes (XBTs) into the ocean.


CO2 Measurements

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Are Olsen

Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen
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Meike Becker

Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen
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Truls Johannessen

Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen

Temperature, Salinity, ACDP and XBTs

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Gilles Reverdin

L'OCEAN, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris
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Thomas Rossby

University of Rhode Island
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Henrik Søiland

Institute of Marine Research


Click a box to see the instrument


pCO2 data

The pCO2 data are available from ICOS Norway. They are also included in SOCAT.
Whenever these data are used, preferably also when as part of SOCAT, please cite:
Olsen, A. et al. (2008), Sea-surface CO2 fugacity in the subpolar North Atlantic. Biogeosciences, 5: 535-547, doi:10.5194/bg-5-535-2008

Thermosalinograph data

Unvalidated TSG data are available in Near Real Time through CORIOLIS. Select TSG data, Nuka call sign (platform code) is OXYH2. These data have not been checked in any way nor corrected for the heating that occurs as the water pass the intake pump.

Validated data are available through LEGOS. These data have been validated and corrected. Salinity have been corrected based on comparison with salinity samples analyzed at the Nature Institute (Nuuk, Greenland) and with collocated upper (near 5m depth) data from Argo float profiles, using Alory et al. (2015)’s method. The temperature data have been corrected based on differences with 3m depth temperature data from XBT profiles or intake temperature measurements taken with the pCO2 inststrument. For the Nuka, if water flow was sufficient (near 50 l/minutes or more), this correction is close to -0.11°C. High precision temperature data recorded upstream of the pump are available in the pCO2 data files.

XBT data

The XBT data are available through the SURATLANT website and on NOAA's 'high density XBT transects' site, under line AX1.

ADCP data

The ADCP data are available from Henrik Søiland.


This list provides an overview of all publications that have made use of the data produced onboard Nuka Arctica, both for dedicated studies and as part of global data compilations such as SOCAT.

Last updated January 2017

Fassbender A. J. (2017), Non-Uniform ocean acidification and attenuation of the ocean carbon sink. Geophysical Research Letters, 44: 8404-8413, doi:110.1002/2017GL074389.

Fay A. R. (2017), Correlations of surface ocean pCO2 to satellite chlorophyll on monthly to interannual timescales. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31: 436-455, doi:10.1002/2016GB005563.

Ford, D. et al. (2017), Global marine biogeochemical reanalyses assimilating two different sets of merged ocean colour products. Remote Sensing of Environment, 203: 40-54, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2017.03.040.

DeVries, T. et al. (2017), Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning. Nature, 542: 215-218, doi:10.1038/nature21068.

Gharamti, M.E. et al. (2017), Ensemble Data Assimilation for Ocean Biogeochemical State and Parameter Estimation at Different Sites. Ocean Modelling, 112: 65-89, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.02.006.

Laurelle, G. G. (2017), Global high-resolution monthly pCO2 climatology for the coastal ocean derived from neural network interpolation. Biogeosciences, 14: 4545-4561, doi:10.5194/bg-14-4545-2017.

Wang, H. et al. (2017), Decadal fCO2 trends in global ocean margins and adjacent boundary current-influenced areas. Geophysical Research Letters, 44: 8962–8970, doi:10.1002/2017GL074724.

Wanninkhof, R. and Trinanes, J. (2017), The impact of changing wind speeds on gas transfer and its effect on global air-sea CO2 fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31: 961-974, doi:10.1002/2016GB005592.

Ashton, I. G. et al. (2016), A sensitivity analysis of the impact of rain on regional and global sea-air fluxes of CO2. Plos One 11(9): e0161105, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161105.

Bakker, D. C. E. et al. (2016), A multi-decade record of high quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data, 8: 383-413, doi:10.5194/essd-8-383-2016.

Bourgeois, T. et al. (2016), Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon. Biogeosciences, 13: 4167-4185, doi:10.5194/bg-13-4167-2016.

Ciavatta, S. et al. (2016), Decadal reanalysis of biogeochemical indicators and fluxes in the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 121: 1824-1845, doi:10.1002/2015JC011496.

Couldrey, M. P. et al. (2016), On which timescales do gas transfer control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30: 787-802, doi:10.1002/2015GB005267.

Eyring, V. et al. (2016), ESMValTool (v1.0) – a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP. Geoscientific Model Development, 9: 1747-1802, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-1747-2016.

Jones, C. D. et al. (2016), C4MIP – The Coupled Climate-Carbon Model Intercomparison Project: experimental protocol for CMIP6. Geoscientific Model Development, 9: 2853-2880, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-2853-2016.

Landschützer, al. (2016), Decadal variations and trends of the global ocean carbon sink. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30: 1-22, doi:10.1002/2015GB005359

Le Quéré, C. et al., (2016), Global Carbon Budget 2016. Earth System Science Data, 8: 605-649, doi:10.5194/essd-8-605-2016

Li, H. et al. (2016), Decadal predictions of the North Atlantic CO2 uptake. Nature Communications, 7: 11076, 7 pp, doi:10.1038/ncomms11076.

Li, W. et al. (2016), Reducing uncertainties in decadal variability of the global carbon budget with multiple datasets, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113: 13104-13108, doi:10.1073/pnas.1603956113.

McKinley, G. A. et al. (2016), Timescales for detection of trends in the ocean carbon sink. Nature, 530: 469-472, doi:10.1038/nature16958

Shutler, J. et al. (2016), FluxEngine: A flexible processing system for calculating atmosphere-ocean carbon dioxide gas fluxes and climatologies. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 33: 741-756, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00204.1.

Visinelli, L. et al. (2016), Impacts of data assimilation on the global ocean carbonate system. Journal of Marine Systems, 158: 106-119, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.02.011.

Wrobel, I. and Piskozub, J. (2016), Effect of gas-transfer velocity parameterization choice on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the European Arctic. Ocean Science, 12: 1091-1103, doi:10.5194/os-12-1091-2016.

Yasunaka, S. et al. (2016), Mapping of the air-sea CO2 flux in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas: Basin-wide distibution and seasonal to interannual variability. Polar Science, 10: 323-334, doi:10.1016/j.polar.2016.03.006

Alory, G., et al. (2015), The French contribution to the voluntary observing ships network of sea surface salinity. Deep-Sea Research Part I, 105: 1-18, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2015.08.005

Jones, S. et al. (2015), A statistical gap-filling method to interpolate global monthly surface ocean carbon dioxde data. Journal of Advances in Modelling Earth systems, 7: 1554-1575, doi:10.1002/2014MS000416

Lauvset, S. K. et al. (2015), Trends and drivers in global surface ocean pH over the past 3 decades. Biogeosciences, 12: 1285-1298, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1285-2015

Le Quéré, C. et al., (2015), Global Carbon Budget 2015. Earth System Science Data, 7: 349-396, doi:10.5194/essd-7-349-2015

Le Quéré, C., et al. (2015), Global Carbon Budget 2014. Earth System Science Data, 7: 47-85, doi:10.5194/essd-7-47-2015

Iida, Y. et al. (2015), Trends in pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux over the global open oceans for the last two decades. Journal of Oceanography, 71: 637-661, doi:10.1007/s10872-015-0306-4

Rödenbeck, C. et al. (2015), Data-based estimates of the ocean carbon sink variability - First results of the Surface Ocean pCO2 Mapping Intercomparison (SOCOM). Biogeosciences, 12: 7251-7278, doi:10.5194/bg-12-7251-2015

Zeng, J. et al. (2015), Surface ocean CO2 in 1990-2011 modelled using a feed-forward neural network. Geoscience Data Journal, 2: 47-51, doi:10.1002/gdj3.26d

Bakker, D. C. E., et al. (2014), An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2). Earth System Science Data, 6: 69-90, doi:10.5194/essd-6-69-2014

Chafik, L., et al. (2014), On the spatial structure and temporal variability of poleward transport between Scotland and Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 824-841, doi:10.1002/2013JC009287

Landschützer, P., et al. (2014), Recent variability of the global ocean carbon sink. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28: 927-949, doi:10.1002/2014GB004853

Laurelle, G. G., et al. (2014), Regionalized budget of the CO2 exchange at the air-water interface in continental shelf seas. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28: 1199-1214, doi:10.1002/2014GB004832

Lauvset, S. K. and N. Gruber (2014), Long-term trends in surface ocean pH in the North Atlantic. Marine Chemistry, 162: 71-76, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2014.03.009

Le Quéré, C., et al. (2014), Global Carbon Budget 2013. Earth System Science Data 6: 235-263, doi:10.5194/essd-6-235-2014

Majkut, J. D. et al. (2014), A growing oceanic carbon uptake: Results from an inversion study of surface CO2 data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 28: 335-351, doi:10.1002/2013GB004585

Rödenbeck, C. et al. (2014), Interannual sea-air flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme. Biogeosciences, 11: 4599-4613, doi:10.5194/bg-11-4599-2014

Takahashi, T. et al. (2014), Climatological distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 saturation in the global surface ocean, and temporal changes at selected locations. Marine Chemistry, 164: 95-125, doi:doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2014.06.004

Tjiputra, J. F. et al. (2014), Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models. Tellus B, 66: 23083, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23083

Woods, S. et al. (2014), Influence of cool skin layer on global air-sea CO2 flux estimates. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 145: 15-24, doi:doi:10.1016/j.rse.2013.11.023

Zeng, J. et al. (2014), A global surface ocean fCO2 climatology based on a feed-forward neural network. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31: 1838-1849, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00137.1

Chen, C.-T. A. et al. (2013), Air–sea exchanges of CO2 in the world’s coastal seas. Biogeosciences, 10: 6509–6544, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6509-2013

Fay, A. R. and G. A. McKinley (2013), Global trends in surface ocean pCO2 from in situ data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 27: 541-557, doi:10.1002/gbc.20051

Landschützer, P. et al. (2013), A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Biogeosciences, 10: 7793-7815, doi:10.5194/bg-10-7793-2013

Pfeil, B. et al. (2013), A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data, 5: 125-143, doi:10.5194/essd-5-125-2013

Roedenbeck, C. et al. (2013), Global surface-ocean pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux variability from an observation-driven ocean mixed-layer scheme. Ocean Science, 9: 193-216, doi:10.5194/os-9-193-2013

Sabine, C. L. et al. (2013), Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products. Earth System Science Data, 5: 145-153, doi:essd-5-145-2013

Schuster, U. et al. (2013), An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea-air-CO2 fluxes, 1990-2009. Biogeosciences, 10: 607-627, doi:10.5194/bg-10-607-2013

Signorini, S. et al. (2012), The role of phytoplankton dynamics in the seasonal and interannual variability of carbon in the subpolar North Atlantic – A modelling study. Geoscientific Model Development, 5: 683-707, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-683-2012

Tjiputra, J. F. et al. (2012), A model study of the seasonal and long–term North Atlantic surface pCO2 variability. Biogeosciences, 9: 907-923, doi:10.5194/bg-9-907-2012

Després, A. et al. (2011), Mechanisms and spatial variability of meso scale frontogenesis in the northwestern North Atlantic Subpolar gyre. Ocean Modelling, 39: 97-113, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.12.005

Després, A. et al. (2011), Summer-time modification of surface fronts in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Journal Geophysical Research, 116, C10003, doi:10.1029/2011JC006950

Våge, K. et al. (2011), The Irminger gyre: Circulation, convection and interannual variability. Deep-Sea Research I, 58, 590-614, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.03.00

Metzl, N. et al. (2010), Recent acceleration of the sea surface fCO2 growth rate in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (1993-2008) revealed by winter observations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB4004, doi:10.1029/2009GB003658

Omar, A. M. et al (2010), Spatiotemporal variations of fCO2 in the North Sea. Ocean Science, 6: 77–89, doi:10.5194/os-6-77-2010

Reverdin, G. (2010), North Atlantic subpolar gyre surface variability (1895-2009). Journal of Climate, 17: 4571-4584, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3493.1

Chierici, M. et al. (2009), Algorithms to estimate the carbon dioxide uptake in the northern North Atlantic using shipboard observations, satellite and ocean analysis data. Deep-Sea Research II, 65: 630-639, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.014

Pierrot, D. et al. (2009), Recommendations for Autonomous Underway pCO2 Measuring Systems and Data Reduction Routines. Deep-Sea Research II, 56: 512-522, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.005

Takahashi, T. et al. (2009), Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea–air CO2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Research II, 56: 554-577, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.009

Telzewski, M., A. et al. (2009), Estimating the monthly pCO2 distribution in the North Atlantic using a self-organizing neural network. Biogeosciences, 6: 1405-1421, doi:10.5194/bg-6-1405-2009

Watson, A. J. et al. (2009), Tracking the variable North Atlantic sink for CO2. Science, 326: 1391-1393, doi:10.1126/science.1177394

Olsen, A. et al. (2008), Sea-surface CO2 fugacity in the subpolar North Atlantic. Biogeosciences, 5: 535-547, doi:10.5194/bg-5-535-2008

Knutsen, Ø. et al. (2005), Direct measurements of the mean flow and eddy kinetic energy structure in the upper ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 14: L14604, doi:10.1029/2005GL023615

Reverdin, G. et al. (2002), Recent changes in the surface salinity of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(C12), 8010, doi:10.1029/2001JC001010

The Nuka Arctica North Atlantic Observatory is supported by: